We can define angina as chest pain that is caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart. Pressure or squeezing in the chest can make you feel like you’re having a heart attack. Angina pectoris, or ischemic chest pain, is a common term for this ailment. coronary artery disease can cause angina, which is a symptom (CAD). A blood clot or atherosclerosis narrows or blocks the arteries that supply blood to the heart, resulting in heart failure. Unstable plaques, a narrowed heart valve, an impaired pumping function of the heart muscle, and a coronary artery spasm are all possible causes. 

Types:

Angina can take one of three forms:

Stable Angina:

This is a symptom of an overworked heart. There is a regularity to stable angina symptoms. Medicines and rest are usually effective.

Unstable Angina

If there is no physical exertion involved, it can occur without a specific pattern. Rest and medication do not alleviate the symptoms. It’s a warning sign that you’re on the verge of having a heart attack.

Variant Angina

Variant angina is a relatively uncommon disease to have. It occurs when you’re sleeping. Medicines can be helpful.

Symptoms 

Angina is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Pressure, squeezing or crushing in the chest, usually under the breastbone.
  • The upper back, both arms, neck, and ear lobes can also be affected.
  • Your arms, shoulders, jaw, neck, or back may be aching.
  • Constricted airways
  • Fatigue and a feeling of weakness
  • Faint in the face

By resting or taking prescribed cardiac medicine, such as nitro-glycerine, angina chest pain can usually be alleviated within a few minutes of experiencing it. You can get heart medication online or other prescribed drugs. What causes the pain, what it feels like, how long it lasts, and if the medicine helps alleviate it are all things to keep in mind. Call the hospital immediately if angina symptoms suddenly change, if they occur while you are resting or if they begin to occur more frequently. Angina pectoris symptoms can resemble those of other medical conditions or issues. A diagnosis should always be obtained from a medical professional. 

Causes:

Angina is a symptom of a heart condition like:

Coronary artery disease:

Men and women alike suffer from angina due primarily to CAD. A build-up of plaque in the coronary arteries blocks the flow of blood to the heart, resulting in a heart attack or stroke. Reduced blood flow to the heart is caused by narrowing or hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Myocardial ischemia occurs as a result of a lack of blood flow. People are at greater risk of having a heart attack as a result (myocardial infarction).

Microvascular disease (MVD): 

Angina from MVD is more common in women than in men. Deficiencies in the walls and linings of coronary artery branches are the cause of it. Coronary spasms occur when blood flow to the heart is reduced.

Coronary spasms:

In the event of a coronary spasm, the coronary arteries repeatedly constrict and then expand. The heart’s blood flow is temporarily restricted during these spasms. Having coronary spasms is possible even if you don’t have coronary artery disease. Heart spasms can occur in coronary arteries of any size or shape. 

Treatment

Numerous treatment options are available for angina, such as dietary and medication modifications, angioplasty and stenting procedures, or coronary artery bypass surgery. Goals include reducing symptoms and reducing your risk of having a heart attack or dying from it.

It’s important to seek immediate medical attention if you’re experiencing angina symptoms that aren’t consistent with what you’re used to, such as when you’re resting.

Medications:

You may need to take medications if modifying your lifestyle isn’t enough to alleviate your angina symptoms. These are some examples:

Calcium channel blockers. 

Blood vessels widen by affecting the muscle cells in the arterial walls, which is how calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium antagonists, work. Reduced or eliminated angina can be avoided by increasing blood flow to the heart through this method. 

Nitrates.

Nitrates are commonly used to treat angina. Nitrous oxide widens and relaxes your arteries to increase blood flow to the heart. A common treatment for angina is the use of nitrates, such as nifedipine, to alleviate symptoms and prevent angina from developing in the first place. When it comes to treating angina, nitro-glycerine tablets are the most common form of nitrate.

Aspirin.

Aspirin reduces the ability of your blood to clot, allowing your heart’s arteries to flow more easily. Preventing blood clots can also help to keep heart attacks at bay. If you’re taking aspirin regularly, talk to your doctor first.

Beta-blockers.

Beta-blockers block the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. As a result of a gentler heartbeat, blood pressure is reduced. Beta-blockers ease angina symptoms by relaxing blood vessels and increasing blood flow.

Medications that lower blood pressure is available.

If you have hypertension, diabetes, signs of heart failure, or chronic kidney disease, your doctor will almost certainly prescribe a blood pressure-lowering medication. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are the two main classes of blood pressure-lowering drugs (ARBs).

Surgery and medical procedures

Stable angina is commonly treated with a combination of dietary and pharmaceutical interventions. Angina can be treated medically with angioplasty, stenting, and coronary artery bypass surgery.

External counterpulsation (ECP)

ECP uses blood pressure-type cuffs to increase blood flow to the heart by placing them around the calves, thighs, and pelvis. To receive the full benefits of ECP, you will have to undergo more than one session. 

Stenting and angioplasty. As part of the procedure known as PCI (also known as percutaneous coronary intervention), angioplasty is performed. It is common to insert a small wire mesh coil (stent) to keep the artery wide open after inflating the balloon.

Angina is reduced or eliminated as a result of this procedure. In the case of chronic, stable angina for which lifestyle changes and medications have failed to provide relief, angioplasty and stenting may be an option.

Coronary artery bypass operation.

Bypass surgery uses another vein or artery from another part of your body to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel in your heart. Bypass surgery improves or eliminates angina by increasing blood flow to the heart. 

Complications

Angina can make even routine activities like walking painful due to the accompanying chest pain. Heart attacks, on the other hand, pose the greatest threat.

A heart attack can manifest as any of the following:

  • Long-lasting chest discomfort that isn’t alleviated by resting or taking over-the-counter medications.
  • Extending beyond your chest to your shoulder, arm, or back or even your teeth and jaw, you may be experiencing severe pain.
  • Chest pain is becoming more frequent.
  • Vomiting and feeling sick
  • The upper abdomen has been inflamed for a long period.
  • Constricted airways
  • Sweating
  • Fainting
  • Doomsday gloom and dread

See a doctor right away if you notice any of these signs.

Prevention

Angina can be prevented with the following methods:

  • giving up smoking
  • exercising regularly
  • developing coping mechanisms for dealing with pressure

To prevent yourself from several effects on the heart and other aspects of metabolic syndrome, people should receive proper and reliable treatment.